National Space Council Meeting from the White House

National Space Council Meeting from the White House


The new NASA Administrator has already
been called out and recognized warmly by this crowd but let me add my
congratulations to Jim bridenstine as the new administrator of NASA I welcome
you to your first meeting the National Space Council and grateful to have you
sitting in the chair and at representing NASA in this conversation last December
the President signed Space policy directive 1 which directs NASA to return
American astronauts to the moon we have discussed that at some length privately
and with your team to the moon first and as the president said today eventually
to Mars I know you’ve been diligently working with your team to develop a
strategy to implement that space policy directive and I wanted to invite you to
give the council an update on your welcome yes sir thank you first of all
sir it’s an honor to serve my country in this capacity honor of a lifetime and
I’d like to thank you and the president for this opportunity I would also like
to thank your executive secretary here on the Space Council Scott pace who when
all the lights are off I hear something when all the lights are off and the
cameras aren’t rolling he works overtime to make sure this group is is focused on
a whole-of-government approach under your direction so thank you for that sir
and thank you to the executive secretary Scott pace I’d be remiss if I didn’t
also mention Jared stout who worked side-by-side with Scott pace on these
issues so we are underway executing the president’s pace policy directive one
which is our effort to return to the moon and interestingly we heard the
president give his speech he talked about it being sustainable I wrote a few
notes down of some things he said he said that we’ve had a number of
opportunities to go back to the moon since 1972 he didn’t mention them
specifically but the space exploration initiative the vision for Space
Exploration and each of these efforts got in essence undermined the words he
used were by bureaucracy and politics and so our objective now following the
direction of the president is to get back to the surface of the Moon and back
to orbit around the moon in a sustainable way and and he said if I
remember right he said we want more than just flags and footprints this time he
also said rich guys love rockets and I’ve heard him say that before that’s an
important thing to recognize because the architecture that we’re building now is
entirely different than any architecture we’ve ever built before in an effort to
get to the moon and the reason is we have more capabilities now than we’ve
ever had as a nation largely because of the efforts of many people in this room
the idea that we have reusable rockets to bring down the cost of launch and
give us more access at a lesser cost than ever before the miniaturization of
electronics these capabilities enable us to do more in fact with less although
thanks to you and the president we’re doing more with more which is a good
thing for the NASA budget and we’re grateful for that so the opportunities
before us are immense and initially when we go back to to the moon there’s a
number of things that we need to do we need low-earth orbit to be driven by
commercial enterprise and that’s underway right now under the President’s
budget request the the International Space Station will will no longer
receive direct support in the year 2025 in some ways that’s a big challenge for
us at NASA and we understand the challenge before us but for the first
time we’re having very serious conversations about how to make low
Earth orbit commercialized we want we don’t want any gaps in human activity in
low-earth orbit and that means commercialization is the key then we can
take our resources at NASA and go further in other words to the surface of
the Moon and then on to Mars the first program that we have getting to the moon
is called Clips the commercial lunar payload services what we call it at NASA
what we talk about is taking shots on goal commercial lunar payload services
these are not expensive missions and they’re not carrying heavy payloads but
we’re going to give commercial companies an opportunity to land on the surface of
the Moon and we would be a customer of that they would have other customers as
well but we would be one of many customers in a very competitive market
with as many as six or even more providers for our access to the surface
of the Moon the reason this is important is because all of these capabilities in
a competitive environment result in in it in effect not just competition on
price but competition on innovation so we can do more than we’ve probably ever
done before it’s also important to note mr. vice president that when we go this
direction we are taking shots on goal not every shot gets made so it is very
possible some of our commercial providers who we believe there are a
number of them that are ready but maybe some of them are not so there is a there
is a risk that some of them won’t be successful but what we learn through
this commercial lunar payload services program will be critical for the next
step which is heavier Landers not just capable of delivering instruments but
capable of delivering prospectors things that can dig we know from
NASA’s achievements back in 2008 and 2009 we know that there are potentially
hundreds of billions of tons of water ice on the moon from 1972 until then in
2009 we didn’t know that there was water ice on the surface we now know that so
that represents an opportunity for us to learn more about the moon than we’ve
ever learned before because we’re gonna go to the surface and we’re going to
prospect that means we need heavier Landers they can they can carry things
that that can prospect the surface of the Moon and then beyond that we need
heavier Landers that can take humans to the surface of the Moon so this is an
iterative process where we’re building capability that we really haven’t had
sir since 1972 while we’re doing this we’re also going to put in orbit around
the moon what we call gateway this is our opportunity to have more access to
more parts of the moon than ever before when you land on the surface of the Moon
you’re in one spot on the surface of the Moon but what we want is we want access
to the entire moon we also want to make sure that everything we develop is
reusable this ultimately gives us more access to our international partners it
puts us in a leadership position where the standards and interfaces are
established by the United States of America and then the Landers that go
from the gateway to the moon the tugs that go from low-earth orbit to the
Gateway it’s all reusable and it becomes a critical piece of infrastructure that
we can then capitalize on with our commercial partners and our
international partners again the goal here following the president’s space
policy directive 1 the goal is sustainability we do not want this to be
Lucy and the football again when we go to the moon we’re going and as the
president said in his speech this time we’re going to stay and the Gateway
gives us that great opportunity it’s also important to note that as NASA
develops these capabilities each one of these capabilities feeds forward the
reason we go to the moon is because we want to land Americans on the surface of
Mars and the technologies the capabilities the in-situ resource
utilization that we developed for the moon
will ultimately get us to Mars it’s also why the Gateway is so important having
an orbital outpost around the moon gives us more access to more parts of the
solar system than ever before and all those technologies are being developed
in and around the moon for the purpose of eventually getting humans to Mars so
sir I would say that space policy directive one is well underway we’ve got
a long ways to go but we’re started and certainly we want to get back to the
moon as quickly as possible thank you you did all that without any notes it’s
great to have you great to have you on board and your position with that he was
just acknowledged a few moments ago dr. Scott pace is the director of the
national space Council staff and dr. pace if you’d give the team a an
overview of today’s space policy directive three and the implementation
plan we’ll take action on that and then move very quickly to our two upcoming
panels Thank You mr. vice president it’s an honor to be here
now that space policy director three has been approved departments and agencies
are working to transform that policy into action the interagency working
group has designated leads and supporting departments and agencies for
each of the goals in the policy outlining key tasks necessary to achieve
that goal and they’re establishing implementing actions that involve the
lead and supporting agencies tracking progress from reporting back to the
council at regular intervals the interagency working group planning has
been coordinated and endorsed at the deputy’s level and I should add that
this has been a very thorough and rigorous process that has involved all
of the departments and agencies and we very much appreciated the really deep
thought that people have given to that effort mr. vice president it’s important
to emphasize that while there are roles and responsibilities outlined in Space
policy directive three and designated lead departments that doesn’t mean that
government organizations will perform all those actions
to achieve each school or that they will somehow prevent us industry from
contributing to space situational awareness and space traffic management
in fact the policy and implementation plans are intended to establish an
architecture or framework that encourages commercial development and of
enhanced space safety data and services we want to take advantage of the growing
innovation in the private sector it’s gonna be so necessary for this to
succeed there’s a copy of the plan in each of your binders and the last page
of the plan summarizes those implementation actions and due dates we
are respectfully asking the council to approve this plan for implementation the
president’s policy and with the council’s approval we will initiate
tracking of the implementation actions and look forward to providing updates at
future council meetings thank you sir thank you dr. pace are there any
outstanding comments or objections to the implementation plan that’s in your
books seeing no objection I direct the executive secretary to enter the
implementation plan into the records of the national space Council and to make
publicly available a fact sheet on the policy and on the plan I also direct the
executive secretary to work with the members of the national space Council to
develop periodic updates on the implementation of the plan but thank you
very much thank you sir when I asked our first panel to go ahead
and make their way up to the table for this first panel we’re going to be
discussing science and exploration missions and the vital connection
between the two I want to commend administrator bridenstine and his
leadership team for the efforts that you just reflected on strengthening the
bonds of cooperation and collaboration between science and human exploration
directorates at NASA you’re you’re breaking down the barriers and that’s
exactly what the president I are hoping to see we’re grateful to join by three
truly distinguished panelists who are going to speak in greater detail about
the important ways in which our science missions complement our exploration
missions and vice versa I’ll describe each of the panelists and then I’ll
recognize you for maybe five minutes of remarks and then we’ll have some
questions from members of the council our first panelist is dr. louise proctor
director of the lunar and planetary Institute in Houston Texas our second
panelist is dr. Steve Squyres the James a weeks professor of physical sciences
at Cornell University and our third panelist is mr. John Vilander president
and CEO of tech shot a space company based in Greenville Indiana with that
join me in welcoming this very distinguished panel for coming perspective dr. Louise Proctor is recognized and
thank you for being here mr. vice president members of the council thank
you very much for this opportunity to speak today science and exploration
enjoy a powerful synergistic relationship scientific research drives
exploration and exploration that creates new opportunities for scientific
discovery this synergy is no more evident than at NASA which in it’s
almost 60 years of existence has been the embodiment of humankind’s need to
explore to explain why we are here and why our earth is so unique throughout
those six decades robotic exploration has proven to be a fundamental and
essential component of NASA’s space program enabling incredible scientific
discoveries about our solar system and universe in the beginning robotic
spacecraft also served as pathfinders for the manned program with the many
ranger and surveyor missions characterizing the moon ahead of the
astronauts who visited it and since Apollo robotic spacecraft have continued
to feed the quest to explore and learn they have traveled far beyond Earth’s
moon examining asteroids comets and with the recent successful flyby of Pluto
every planet in the classical solar system as well as many of their moons
robotic missions are even now being developed to thoroughly examine ocean
worlds the few bodies in the solar system believed to Harbor the
ingredients of life and maybe even life itself robotic spacecraft active Scouts
going to hostile environments that no human can safely visit yet and returning
scientific knowledge that benefits our society in the numerable ways robotic
exploration stimulates investments in technology development that are highly
significant in achieving national and economic goals space exploration related
technology has resulted in advancements in a broad range of areas including
transportation public safety consumer goods industrial productivity and health
we must not underestimate the importance of education in this marriage of science
and exploration my own Institute was created by President Lyndon Johnson
fifty years ago for the specific purpose of bringing NASA and the university
community together it was realized that the expertise of scientific researchers
was needed in order to analyze and interpret the treasure trove of
information that was being returned from the moon around that time in addition to
carrying out cutting-edge research universities play a key role as
incubators for highly skilled scientists engineers mathematicians technologists
and educators who then move into our nation’s workforce in many areas not
just space exploration hands-on sights and technical training is just as
important today as we plan the return of humans to the moon and beyond as it was
when we first met that challenge the u.s. civilian space program pushes our
scientific and technological limits making the seemingly impossible possible
and driving the creation of new partnerships with government commercial
and academic organizations NASA’s accomplishments capture the attention of
citizens and nations worldwide emphasizing the USS global leadership in
space and creating opportunities for peaceful immune mutually beneficial
international collaboration thank you Thank You dr. Proctor next I’d like to
hear from dr. Steve Squyres of Cornell University dr. Squires you
recognized Thank You mr. vice president members of the council it’s a real honor
to be here today for almost 60 years the u.s. based program has been an inspiring
example of American ingenuity throughout that time exploration and science have
gone hand in hand robotic precursor missions provide crucial data for
designers of human missions and define the scientific goals for human explorers
I’m a robot guy I’ve spent my career designing and operating robot explorers
but I firmly believe that the human explorers can achieve far more science
than robots ever will I also believe that the humans vs. robots debate that
we sometimes here in space circles is based on a fundamentally false premise
humans and robots are complementary in their strengths and their weaknesses and
a well-designed scientific space exploration will always use both our
nation’s civil space program is at a pivotal pivotal moment now in its
history space policy directive 1 clearly articulates the goal of sending humans
back to the moon and on to Mars this goal is clear compelling and achievable
a return to the moon is valuable before proceeding in more challenging targets
it’s been more than 45 years since the astronauts have ventured beyond
low-earth orbit the moon is an ideal place to validate the new technologies
vehicles and operational procedures that will be needed to send astronauts beyond
the earth-moon system the moon also offers exciting scientific exploration
potential in its own right preserving in its rocks a record of the earliest
events of the earth moon system as well as possessing resources that could
enable ventures deeper into the solar system now beyond the moon exciting
targets for exploration beckon foremost among these is Mars 40-plus years of
scientific scientific observations by Mars orbiters Landers and Rovers have
revealed a world of enormous diversity and complexity most importantly we have
learned that Mars alone among the planets is enough like Earth to
conditions that its surface might once have been capable of supporting life so
the goal for human exploration Mars is therefore compelling and very
easy to articulate it is to send humans to the planet to learn if life ever took
hold there this is a goal worthy of a great national space program so a
guiding principle in designing our nation’s lunar exploration should be
that it also simultaneously lays the groundwork for the still more
challenging goal of sending humans to Mars at the same time that humans and
their robot helpers focus on the Moon and Mars more advanced robotic missions
compress deeper in the solar system important targets include the ocean
world – the outer solar system especially Europa a moon of Jupiter that
appears to have a deep ocean of liquid water that might be capable of
supporting life today new technologies also now allow return of samples from a
wide range of planetary bodies these include Mars and comets and this allows
us to bring the full capability of Earth’s best laboratories to bear on the
solar system’s most important scientific questions now a compelling program of
scientific space exploration of the moon Mars and Beyond will be neither easy nor
inexpensive committed international partners surely can make an important
contribution to an american-led program but more importantly commercial
enterprises in the United States can partner with the government to spur
innovation and reduce cost to the taxpayer while adding value to the
program the scientific exploration capabilities offered by potential
commercial partners to me represents the most important and enabling space
development in recent years thank you for the opportunity to address this
council and I look forward to the discussion to come Thank You dr. Squires and mr. John
villager of TechShop recognized vice-president pence distinguished
members of the National Space Council it’s an honor to be here before you here
today at the White House I’d like to describe how Tech’s shot the company I
co-founded in Indiana nearly 30 years ago is an innovative engine that uses
space that help make life better here on the earth by also enabling deep-space
exploration one of our most exciting projects focuses on 3d bioprinting in
space with the goal of manufacturing human tissues for patients here on earth
right now we are building the tech shot bio fabrication facility which will
launch to the international space station early next year we will start
with simpler tissues such as patches that can help heal damaged hearts and
steadily increase in complexity and 2eo biomanufacturing whole organs from space
the bio printer may also play a critical role in deep-space exploration where it
could be used to make food items or function as a compounding pharmacy
enabling the remote formulation of drugs optimized for each crew member besides
our own use of the system we will also allow others to use it it will join our
catalog of tech shot developed equipment currently onboard the station which we
provide is a commercial service for example researchers from Eli Lilly
Novartis UCLA have used our bone densitometer x-ray machine in space to
study new drug treatments for osteoporosis and muscle wasting diseases
both of which affect people here on the earth and crews in deep space during
long-duration missions astronaut terry virts actually got to operate our bone
densitometer on the international space station so thank you sir
I believe that NASA and its commercial space utilization program and the
Centers for the Advancement of Sciences in space are successfully increasing
demand for low-earth orbit in commercial space services and tech shot is
providing many of the picks and shovels the researchers are
using in this 21st century gold rush to space beyond the commercialization of
low-earth orbit our contributions to exploration currently focus on other new
technologies that enable mission success into deep space tech shot is prototyping
for NASA a machine we call the tech shot Fab Lab which is capable of 3d
manufacturing metals ceramics plastics and more it can even print complex
electronic assemblies if the agency likes our approach the technology will
be refined for testing aboard the International Space Station and
eventually deployment aboard the lunar over a platform gateway that the minute
NASA Administrator just mentioned tech shots Fab Lab also be use in austere
environments here on earth such as onboard submarines that must remain
submerged for months at a time president Trump vice president pence
under your leadership the u.s. is entering an unprecedented golden age of
spaceflight which is presenting multiple
opportunities to advance global American competitiveness tech shot is proud to be
playing a critical role in this unique time in space history for this
opportunity I thank you well thank you to all of our panelists I
will begin by asking one of our panelists to amplify then I’ll go to
general Dunford for a question and then to our deputy assistant chief technology
officer in the United States Michael and any other members of the panel let me
start with dr. Squires if I may you said you’re a robot guy yes sir and we
already knew that but I’m really fascinated at the way you describe an
appreciation it’s not in your mind it seems that we have gotten away from
human space exploration the president’s vision and directive is to return
America to a preeminent role of space exploration the moon and the Mars as you
described how important is it for us in your mind again and I know you addressed
this but I’d love for you to amplify the point that we that we even while we
continue to develop all these robotic technologies that that that human space
exploration would be central to what what we do on the moon and on Mars and
beyond it’s tremendously important if I may let me tell you a very brief story
when we were first developing the Mars exploration Rovers we had a robotic
precursor Rover that we could take out in the Mojave Desert and I was out there
and we were operating the rover and they were over broke down so we had a little
time on our hands I had a bunch of very capable field geologists with me and so
I sent them off and I said go through some geology okay and I sat there with a
stopwatch and a notebook didn’t tell them what I was doing and I watched as
they would look around walk over to a rock pick it up break it open look at it
with their hand lens and I timed how long it took them to do that what our
magnificent state of the art robots like that one the model of which is on the
table in front of you can do in a day these people were doing in about 30
seconds okay so humans offer far far far greater
capability then then robots I believe ever will the
other thing is that humans have a capability to inspire that is
tremendously important okay I grew up in the 60s and 70s like everybody else on
my team watching Mercury Gemini Apollo and T on TV and dreaming of sending
spaceships to Mars someday and now we do and so I think that capability to use
uniquely human talents to explore and to inspire other humans to it to follow
their dreams is something that is just fundamentally important that’s great
and our next panel will be three courageous astronauts we’ll hear more
from about just that topic but I thought I’d give a robot guy just to talk about
how important human exploration is general Dunford thanks mr. vice
president my questions for mister villager Defense Department has
partnered on bioprinting and bio manufacturing with obvious interest for
wounded warriors and see your comments it kind of caught my attention what are
the advantages of doing bio printing and bio manufacturing in space the
implications for maybe the speed with which we can approach that there’s a lot
of promise and of course academic institution and so forth but but we
haven’t necessarily been able to deliver it at scale to date great question thank
you sir in space we have a unique opportunity because of microgravity here
on the ground when we bio print we have to actually include a scaffold structure
into the tissue that you’re printing in space you don’t have to do that because
you don’t have gravity so you can use a lower viscous bio-ink material which
helps cells vascularized easier in space so basically you eliminate what helps
what actually causes more difficulty to do bio printing on the ground you
eliminate that process when you go to microgravity and you have the
opportunity to create different structures that can vascular eyes and
and help you know human beings here on earth with with tissues and organs no
thanks Michael go right ahead
great Thank You vice president just to build on that mr. ballinger is that just
to follow up I mean we see a pretty pretty incredible potential for
pharmaceutical medical breakthroughs made possible through research in
low-earth orbit I guess the question for us on stage here is what can we as a
government be doing better to to encourage and foster more more of that
research and expedite the the ultimate fruits of us incredible research thank
you sir I think access to space is important the
repeatability to be able to do these projects more often is very very
important being able to have the ability to interact with the crew the astronauts
to be able to advance the technology and work with them real time is really
important and so I think Iowa you know I would I would interaction with it with
the crew access to space and just supported the technology any other
members of the panel Jim thank you sir I couldn’t let dr. Proctor
go without a question so we know that based on what NASA has already done we
understand that Mars used to have an ocean potentially as big as two-thirds
of Mars was covered by water we know that it used to have a magnetosphere and
we knew we know that it used to have a thick atmosphere and we know that at
some point billions of years ago all of that changed and now it is it is
seemingly barren we also know although not definitely better and hopefully
we’ll be able to find some bio signatures we also know if you look at
at Venus it’s it’s experiencing runaway greenhouse effects can you share with us
as the NASA Administrator I hear a lot that every dollar we spend studying
other planets is a dollar we don’t spend studying our own planet which I believe
is critically important as well can you share how important it is or what we can
learn by studying the moon what can we learn about our own planet what can we
learn by studying Mars what can we learn about our own planet yeah and and
actually I would completely disagree with that statement that every dollar
spent exploring other planets is not a dollar spent exploring the earth
everything we learn about the solar system tells us something about our
earth you can think of the solar system as a giant laboratory if you want to
know what happens if you change gravity you can go to a different planet if you
want to know what happens if the climate runs out of control you can go to Venus
so every time we explore another body we learn something about the conditions
that make our own planet so very special and so hospitable to life
particularly with the other thing about planets they don’t have trees they don’t
have buildings on them you know a lot of the surfaces are pristine or they have
evolved in certain ways that are similar to our own planet so essentially
everything we learn throughout the solar system also from small bodies and from
other solar systems now we’re starting to look at Excel
understand again what what makes the conditions just right for our earth to
be where it is in this very special place in time so it’s really a very
cost-effective way of looking back in time at our own earth and understanding
how we got here thank you well join me in thanking this dr. Louise
Proctor dr. Steve Squyres and mr. john dillinger thank you so much for your
time next I’d like to invite our next panel
to step forward we’re honored to be joined today by three American
astronauts and we’ll now having spoken about the interrelationship between
scientific exploration and human exploration now we will talk about
getting your perspective on how we accelerate human exploration of the
solar system before I do that I thought it was
noteworthy today June the 18th to acknowledge that it was 35 years ago
today on June 18 1983 that Sally Ride made history when she stepped on to the
space shuttle Challenger and became the first American woman to venture into
space Sally Ride is an American hero his courage and pioneering spirit continue
to inspire countless of young Americans across this country to pursue their
dreams earlier this year the US Postal Service unveiled Sally Ride forever as a
stamp and I know all of you join me today in honoring her memory and
celebrating her legacy at this meeting of the National Space as I mentioned where we are joined by
three exceptional Americans heroes all members of the astronaut corps and we
are grateful I’m grateful for your service to the country and grateful for
your bringing your insights with us today they’re not the only astronauts
here but they’re the only ones that haven’t been introduced much yet so let
me do that our first panelists are Colonel Eileen
Collins the first female pilot and commander of a space shuttle mission
Colonel Collins it’s an honor to have you here today thank you so much our second panelist is Colonel Terry
Virts a veteran of the shuttle program and a former commander of the
International Space Station Colonel verts thank you so much for your
leadership and your insights today and dr. Scott Parazynski
is a veteran of five flights on the space shuttle and a deeply respected
member of the astronaut corps thank you so much for your presence here today if
that will we’ll ask each of the panelists to share for a few minutes and
then we’ll move on to questions for this final panel and Colonel Collins you’re
recognized good afternoon and thank you mr. vice
president and members of the National Space Council it’s really an honor to be
here thank you for the invitation Scott in teri and I are part of a group of
about five hundred people who have flown in space we have had the unusual
perspective of viewing the Earth from orbit
we’ve lived aboard the space shuttle in the space station we’ve conducted
rendezvous spacewalks science experiments and robotics we saw our
planet from a different perspective in an environment that forced us to think
creatively about how things are done and what things can become so I became
interested in spaceflight at a young age when I first learned about the Gemini
and Apollo astronauts they inspired me to become an explorer and eventually to
join the Air Force and become a pilot and a test pilot as I look back over the
decades of human spaceflight the daring launches of mercury in the incredible
bravery of the men that flew to the moon I’m so proud of what the United States
has accomplished some say that we could have done more we could have been to
Mars by now but what is important now is that we have a strategy and we’re
looking forward we stick to our plan we don’t quit and of course we remember the
lessons learned from the mistakes of the past we must keep our missions as simple
as possible we must keep them keep the costs as low as possible occasionally I
have to remind myself of an old saying that I heard from the Apollo program
better is the enemy of good enough so it doesn’t all have to be the latest
technology but it does have to be safe reliable and mission focused so I’ll
mention a few priorities for the future of human spaceflight first
re-establishing our country’s ability to launch astronauts from within the United
States it’s been almost seven years now since we last saw an ass
not launched out of Florida now for safety reasons I certainly don’t think
this should ever be rushed we’re on a good track now but I believe we need to
keep an eye in the future and have a future strategy to avoid us getting back
in this situation again second I support the long-term goal of landing astronauts
on Mars for this to be successful any critical equipment that’s destined to
Mars should be tested first on the surface of the Moon in my written
statement I reference a study from the National Academy of Science entitled
pathways to exploration now in that report they cite 10 critical
technologies and I’ll mention the top three Mars entry descent and landing
radiation safety and power and propulsion but another notable
technology is the life support equipment which includes systems that recycle air
and water now these are being tested right now on the space station but the
moon provides a more advanced test environment due to its similarity to
Mars in gravity and radiation environment and Indust in the third this is almost a no-brainer
but I support the commercial partners and the international partners this is
really essential for our space program and by the way I believe I personally
believe that space tourism someday will be hugely successful and finally just as
I was inspired by the Apollo astronauts a new generation of young people will
want to study science and engineering in an effort to be part of this great
journey and they will also wonder what is out there what discoveries are
waiting for us and can I go thank you so much Colonel Collins great
words and Colonel Terry Virts is recognized thank you for being here
thank you sir mr. vice president and distinguished members of the National
Space Council thank you for inviting me today it’s an honor for several decades
America’s human space program is focused on low Earth orbit and for years we have
not had a clear long-term vision or goal for human space exploration however
these are exciting times and we now have the opportunity to
clearly define such a vision I believe that we should use the Apollo model as
an example of how to proceed however Apollo was actually the sum of
three distinct programs as you know Mercury and then Gemini and then finally
Apollo project mercury demonstrated that flying in space was possible
Gemini developed and tested the technologies that we would need to go to
the moon eventually an Apollo was of course the final mission and that Apollo
mission was very clear to land on the moon and return safely to earth
the president’s recent Space policy directive one calls for returning to the
moon to establish a foundation to eventually enable missions to Mars
a plan that I strongly agree with today our top priority needs to be turning
this high-level vision into very specific goals so that we could plan and
execute an architecture that will achieve them using the mercury than
Gemini than Apollo paradigm the ISS has already fulfilled the mercury rule
demonstrating that humans can live and work in space for extended periods of
time and now is the time to establish a program that will fill the role of
Gemini developing and testing the technologies that we will need to return
to the lunar surface and eventually fly to Mars
unfortunately the recently proposed lunar orbital platform gateway does not
fill that role of Gemini it essentially calls for building another orbital Space
Station a skill that my colleagues and I have already demonstrated on the ISS
gateway will only slow us down taking time and precious dollars away from the
goal of returning to the lunar surface and eventually flying the Mars
I believe that we need to refocus our efforts to align with these long-term
goals the next steps that we take should
leverage the international partnerships that we have built over the past two
decades on ISS and of course they should also take advantage of our significant
commercial capabilities that have demonstrated very recently a level of
innovation and agility that government simply does not possess and most
importantly any future exploration plan must be bipartisan unless these efforts
are truly bipartisan from the beginning they will be doomed to eventual
cancellation you see getting back to the moon and eventually to Mars does not
depend on rocket science it depends on political science thank you sir I’ll come back to that great great
statement thank you so much Carl and dr. Scott Parazynski is recognized thank you
so much for being with us mr. vice president and distinguished members of
the council thank you so much for the honor and opportunity to share my views
with you here today and it’s also great to share the panel with my good friends
teri and Eileen I grew up in the shadow of Apollo program my father actually
worked to help design and test the mighty Saturn 5 boosters that went to
the moon in the late 60s early 70s and so I never grew out of that boyhood
dream of one day flying in space and it turned out ok for me I guess I feel so
fortunate to have been born at a time in a place when such a lofty trajectory was
possible as a kid I wanted nothing more than to set the first boot prints on
Mars but I’m fiercely proud of the work that my NASA co-workers and I did this
help set the stage for this inevitable journey it’s an incredibly exciting time
to be engaged in the space business and what I call the barn storming era of
commercial human spaceflight with so many pioneering American companies
leading of innovations and investments that said the Space Age 2.0 needs to be
needs to overcome some enormous challenges if we aim to be more than
just transient lunar and Martian guests and we’ll need to engage the public in
very different ways to sustain their support building long-duration planetary
habitats and shielding them from the devastating radiation exposure not to
mention the developing the technologies to extract water from the near absolute
zero temperatures of the South Pole of the moon will challenge it engineers to
their limits living off of the land in self-sustaining colonies there will help
us become even better stewards of planet Earth something that deeply concerns
young people today based on rigorous peer-reviewed science they understand
the impact humanity is having on their oceans coral reefs atmosphere and
rainforests and they want to do something about it have a vested
interest in the health and well-being of Earth and can really appreciate the
value of pursuing planetary exploration as a means to understand the future of
their home plan moreover many in the general public and
especially young people are as excited about space as I was at a kid but the
possibilities are even wider it’s still incredibly cool to work at NASA of
course but they can also now work at SpaceX and and at large and Boeing
Virgin Galactic and many other wonderful companies in the near term I believe
there will be tremendous opportunities to engage and inspire the public with
the establishment of a significant lunar outpost akin to the South Pole station
in Antarctica only to political reality since Apollo however I’m frustrated with
our national failure to commit to a sustained bold exploration beyond Earth
orbit sadly we could probably stack up all the NASA studies they’ve been done
over the years on NASA’s next step in steps into space and attain lunar orbit
I believe that the way you climb an enormous mountain like Mount Everest
which is something that I also know a thing or two about is to take the long
view prepare for your prepare to your utmost and then take it one rope blank
of at a time sometimes even one breathless step at a time
understanding that’ll be harder than you ever imagined it’ll likely take longer
and cost more to I propose a true decadal approach to ambitious human
spaceflight goals similar to that taken by NASA Space Science community I
suggest to you that this human spaceflight decadal plan needs to be
free of appropriations earmarks to particular Space Center’s or companies
but rather let’s to the long term goal of achieving lunar and then Martian
presence set the goals then let NASA choose and fund the very best solutions
irrespective of which congressional district the work is conducted in
measure and reward successes acknowledged and cut failures but then
keep moving forward towards the prize so in closing I just suggest to you that
one of the greatest accomplishments of the International Space Station program
has been bringing together nations for the common good of humanity pulling
resources and the best minds and bringing the world closer together I’m
convinced that the first Martians have already been born and they’re already
preparing for humanity’s next giant leap it’s my greatest wish
this journey will be led by Americans but I also hope that we’ll take those
first steps in peace and partnership with colleagues from around the world
thank you very much thank thank you Scott very inspiring words did you say
one rope lengths at a time is that a very sage and it strikes me that each of
the pay each of the panelists talked about the importance of a not only a
plan but the ability to sustain that plan over a long period of time and in
Terry I was struck by your words but the wisdom of your words that said this is
as much about political science as it is about rocket science in terms of getting
America as the president has announced back to the moon and then on on to Mars
and and Eileen you mentioned those three questions I remember the last one is a
war what is out there what were the three questions again what is out there
what discoveries are left for us to make and can I go I know the answer to the
third one for me I guess I’d throw the question out to
the to the panel as a whole and that is other than your inspiring example in
your words today which will make their way across the country from this forum
how would you how would you advise the National Space Council to continue to
build the momentum behind a renewed commitment to America leading in in
space exploration and particularly in human exploration of the Moon and Mars
and beyond well thank you sir for the question I think we can all chime in on
that but I would think initially we have got to get the support of the American
people by getting the message out to people and we
speak it schools and colleges and Rotary clubs people love the space mission and
it’s something that brings us together and not only do students show up but
parents teachers people come if we on the national space council can get some
how use the media I say the mass media because we want to get our message out
we all hear our message you know here in this room and within the space industry
we all hear ourselves but we don’t want to be just echoing our own remarks we
want to get that out so one of the things I think we can do is work very
hard on connecting with mass media yes sir I think I agree with Eileen but I
think we really need and it’s probably your job to set specific goals of
exactly what we’re gonna do so that we know what we’re doing and then if we can
make that bipartisan like I said otherwise it’ll be on that stack of what
Matt says happened in the past few decades and another really important
thing if you remember in the early 90s the space station passed Congress by one
vote and the reason it did was because it was an international program and that
was kind of we weren’t allowed to cancel it because we had commitments and I
think making that international commitment just by the nature of our
democracy it’s very easy for things to change and having an international
partnership adds a level of stability that it doesn’t make it nice or it
doesn’t make it less expensive it actually makes it either possible or not
I think if we don’t have international partners just looking in the future I
can foresee things being very much easier to cancel then they would be
given a strong partnership and using what our international partners can
contribute can actually make the project less expensive and you know more
successful I think taking the long view having a long term established goal and
an exact inexorably working towards it is something that needs to be
communicated well and and I think young people will understand that there is a
place for them and I would I would just differ slightly
to say that I think space exploration is nonpartisan I think it’s something
that’s in the American spirit and the human spirit to explore and and if you
go to any school any community there’s a strong support for continuing to press
the boundaries in exploration because it benefits all of our walks of life well I
thank you for that I’m gonna I’m gonna recognize secretary Chow for a question
but I would all of you agree the importance of having our own platforms
to be able to reach space we see the excitement being generated out of the
commercial space industry but very soon the United States will have the ability
to put courageous astronauts like you back in space on our own platforms is
that do you see that as as an important part of generating the connection
between the popular support across the country and and the reality of support
that that translates into sustained into a sustainable a commitment to leadership
in space I think we all agree very strongly with that statement yeah
merican leadership and the world looks to us and you know Europe and other
countries look to America for that leadership and I think we need to lead
for sure it’s a big part of what America is good okay secretary Cho gosh darn it
the vice president asked my question but I have another one and that is a former
Secretary of Labor I’m always very concerned about workforce development
so dr. Parazynski there’s been a lot of discussion about you know the the future
of stem status in our nation how are we on the right path do you think we’re
doing better or do you see the need for any course corrections and how to get
more young people excited when I talk to young people I tell them that it’s
important to learn a couple of foreign languages and not the traditional
languages that you might expect I tell them that the two most important
languages that they need to learn our math and science to be competitive in
the future in robotics as Steve is engaged in but
in so many different aspects of our future society and in technological
growth and so that’s the message that I I would put forward I think Colin’s the
the federal government does help students go out and get a college
education with whatever degree they would like but
if we could incentivize them financially in some of the programs to go towards
math in science technology engineering I think that would help mr. vice president
before I hand it over I want to thank all these three for their service to our
country how exciting thank you secretary Ross thank you I’d like to ask
each of the panelists how could we better facilitate commercial
participation in the activities you’re describing each of you talked about the
need for partnerships and collaboration are there one or two specific things
that government could do better to encourage commercial you cooperation can
start one of the things that I’ve known from my prior life in in industry is
just the difficulties through the federal acquisition process it’s a very
long pathway and if there are ways to streamline that to make it more
entrepreneurial quick turnaround as I think one of the prior panelists said
it’s important to have access to space to be able to fail to get back up and go
again and so we need to have frequent access to space and I think one of the
ways to make that possible is to figure out ways to shorten the acquisition
process yes sir I’ll just add I’ve got very good friends and former crew mates
that work at Blue Origin and SpaceX and Boeing and other companies and the speed
that they can do innovation is really amazing and I think if the government
can come up with ways to contract with them with very minimal requirements that
there’s this thing called requirements creep and that is the killer of all
right the Wright brothers probably had to suffer through requirements creep a
hundred years ago if we can figure out a way to get those contracts made and let
them innovate tell them what we want and then let the companies do the work I
think we can get things done and I know we’re trying and we’re in the process
right now of doing that so I think we need to continue that process and and
and we’ll get to the Moon and Mars a lot quicker if we do that yes sir the NASA
Administrator had mentioned earlier about the incentives right now that NASA
is giving small companies to go to the lunar surface and you know starting
small small Landers and then building up from there
to larger Landers and maybe eventually the human Lander on the moon
so I guess is doing this now it’s small but I think if it’s successful we should
expand on that and give more incentives just turn them loose don’t tell them you
have to do it exactly this way per the requirements but tell them this is the
end goal figure out how to get there here’s your financial incentive to get
you started I think that those programs be successful and I will keep an eye on
it but I think we can we’ll eventually be doing more of those that’s great I
think it’s really impressive that you can not only be astronauts but have very
thoughtful views on how commercial sector can help thank you let me
recognize our NASA Administrator for the last question for the panel and then
we’ll move toward wrapping up Thank You mr. vice president in the previous panel
I talked about how some people say that every dollar we spend studying other
planets as a dollar we’re not spending studying our own planet similarly I hear
frequently that every dollar we spend studying the moon or going to the moon
or developing the technologies and capabilities for the moon those are
dollars that we’re not spending going to Mars and and Colonel Collins I heard you
very clearly say you mentioned the pathways report which of course came out
when I was still serving in the Congress and of course it was chaired by another
famous indiana mitch daniels and i was wondering if you could share with us how
do you see our effort getting to the moon and abling ultimately our path to
get to Mars well as a former test pilot I believe in the build up approach so to
get somewhere as safe as possible you want to write a test plan and you want
to have a build up approach so to control what you’re doing you test it
and then you add a variable you test it you add another variable you test it so
I think bye-bye you know it’s we can use the moon as a stepping stone right now
we’re testing on the space station which is critical but the space station
doesn’t have dust for example so how do we know that this life support equipment
isn’t just going to fail because there’s too much dust and the valves are in the
equipment the radiation environment so the moon is
a stepping stone to me it’s just critical if I’m gonna go to the moon and
live there I would like to know that this equipment that’s keeping me alive
has worked on the moon so that’s the reason I said that the the pathways
report specifically referenced the moon as the quickest way to get to Mars is
that correct if I remember right either way well I think you’re saying
that I think yes that’s true I do believe that although I would say I was
thinking of there’s the 10 critical technologies and I believe the vast
majority those can be tested on the moon and I’m trying to remember what they are
all right now like for example one of them is the suits that the astronauts
will be using on the surface got to be tested on the surface of Mars the
habitats are another one tested on the surface of the Moon before Mars so
that’s the as far as whether or not it’s the fastest way that I would say it
would be up to debate openly would need to be studied a little bit more but I
would take it from the experts that it would be probably the safest way I
definitely believe it would be the safest way got it Thank You mr. vice
president no thank you Jim thank you very much and
join me in thanking this outstanding panel for their remarks and also they
served it to the country I also wanted to mention that these are
not the only astronauts in the room this is a extraordinary group of Americans
but we’re also joined today by three astronauts that I wanted to recognize
one is a member of the council’s advisory group which we’ll be meeting
for the first time tomorrow he’s flown in space four times walked in space
seven times and he happens to be from Indiana astronaut David wolf is with us
David weronika setup also the president mentioned these two but they didn’t get
to stand up Jack Schmitt was the first geologist on the moon in Apollo 17 a
former senator from New Mexico and Jack I want to promise you that we’re going
to put more geologists and scientists on the moon Jack and lastly one of the one of the heroes
of my youth although you may not like me saying that he was a Gemini astronaut
second man on the moon Apollo 11 and is one of the greatest voices for getting
America back to the moon and on to Mars the incomparable dr. Buzz Aldrin is with
us let me before I close I want to recognize two members of the cabinet who
are with us today for a few brief remarks on what they gleaned from this
presentation and their focus dan coates is the director national intelligence
for the United States and mr. director you’re recognized well miss vice
president thank you for the opportunity to first of all the honor to be part of
the Space Council this is quite an extraordinary experience today with
awful lot of promise ahead and I thank you for that opportunity to be part of
it I’ve been around long enough to go all the way back the launch of Sputnik
the first piece of now debris in in space
joining tens of thousands if not hundreds of thousands of pieces of
debris that’s what that’s one of the questions that we have to deal with
because as an intelligence agency we do develop build launch satellites and
instruments into space we collect from a realm of ground sea air up to a certain
altitude and now the realm of space and it’s incredibly important for us because
we provide information from those collections that provide security and
safety to the American people and so it’s at a very essential piece we joined
the general Dunford the military in terms of providing war fighters that
need the intelligence they need that can be
guard from assets in space as well as our citizens in our country in terms of
what we do up there I could give you some exciting examples but it’s
classified so I can’t do it but just trust me it is something that absolutely
essential and to be part of this effort and joining from with the perspective
from the intelligence community is it is a true true privilege I think most of us
in this room reach back to that day with the launch toward the moon the message
that came back that was one of the most exciting times of my lifetime and I
think we’re now on the cusp of moving into a new era where young people will
be growing up looking at some phenomenal things happening in space and this is a
great way to kick it off Thank You mr. president thank you Dan the director of the office management I
just wonder how often coats’s use that line about wanting to tell us something
but not being able to because it’s classified mr. vice president thank you
for doing this I was when we do these the takeaways for me the the the
aspirational concepts here the aspirational rhetoric is absolutely
critical there’s no question about there is no nothing there is nothing more
aspirational what we’ve talked about here today at the same point it’s very
practical analysis that we’re doing so that the practical takeaways are what
the value is to me so to have folks who actually are in the industry and come in
and challenge us on specifics I think it was kernel verse who said well maybe the
Gateway is not something that helps us get to Mars faster maybe it is maybe it
is but there’s a practical takeaway from that that helps spur this debate which
we have to have I also heard Colonel Collins talk about
keeping missions simpler and trying to find technologies are more readily
available those are the practical kind of takeaways that I think are helpful to
me I also like it when people say there’s ways to do it cheaper y’all
didn’t say that nearly enough but that’s ok we can get to that part later so
thank you for doing it because I do think that at the end of the day this is
more than just a group of people getting together and talking about something
that they all have a common interest in this is actually something that moves
the ball in the right direction I appreciate you doing it well seeing no other no other members of
the National Space Council seeking a recognition let me thank you all for
your time and and your efforts these are extraordinarily busy people and we we
also want to not only thank the cabinet members who are here but the deputy
secretaries in the under secretaries who join us as well a little bit of
housekeeping for national space council members if you have an outstanding
assignment please work with our executive secretary to complete them
dr. pace and his staff are going to ensure that you have what you need to
follow up on space policy directive three and we’ll be working energetically
before the next space council meeting to move forward with that mention let me
let me invite the room to thank dr. dr. pace and Jared stout for their work
putting together you can see a rather memorable picture
of myself and the president and the staff of the National Space Council in
the Oval Office when they’ve stopped in to tell the president about the plans
for this upcoming meeting and our plans to have it here at the White House and
he promptly assured them behind the resolute desk and took a photograph and
then sat them down for the better part of an hour to talk about space program
and his enthusiasm was evidence again today
second to last let me thank members of the national space council’s user
advisory group who are here with us today president recognized many of you
but the men and women who are gathered here coming out of private enterprise
and public life really represent the bulwark of some of them the greatest and
most innovative minds and organizations in and around the space enterprise in
the United States and I know that tomorrow the user advisory group will
meet for the first time and I just want to assure you that all the members of
the National Space Council see your input and your council as vital as we
revive American leadership in space and ensure that the the president’s vision
for the moon Mars and Beyond becomes a reality so if everyone would join me in
thanking the user advisory group members lastly allow me just to thank the
president for his hospitality I think by by hosting us here at the White House
the President may sent a clear message about the priority of American
leadership in space to not only all those gathered here but those looking on
and people across the country and in the wider world I want to thank all of you
for being a part of this thank our panelist again but truly grateful for
the president’s leadership for his vision for his energy I think thanks to
the efforts of all of you and thanks to the leadership for president and Donald
Trump America is leading in space once again so thank you all very much we’ll
go right back to work and we’ll see you at the next meeting of the Nationals

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